8 Nisan 2013 Pazartesi

Ukrayna-Odessa


Ukrayna Haritası




Tarihi:
Şuan bunu yazmaya üşendiğim için alttaki alıntı işe yarayabilir.
  • Odessa or Odesa (Ukrainian: Одеса; Russian: Одесса;) is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast (province) located in southern Ukraine. The city is a major seaport located on the shore of the Black Sea and the fourth largest city in Ukraine with a population of 1,029,000 (as of the 2001 census).
  • The four foreigners' in Russian service met by chance on a Russian military vessel in 1870s - Jose de Ribas, Duc de Rischelieu, Count of Langeron and Franz de Volan. Later on, those four became instrumental in the city's success: the first one convinced the Russian Empress to found Odessa, the second made it the fourth largest city in Russia in just eleven years, the third one made it free economic zone and the fourth one created the city plan, used to build Odessa, which was considered the most advanced city plan in Russia at that time!
  • The predecessor of Odessa, a small Tatar settlement, was founded by Hacı I Giray, the Khan of Crimea, in 1240 and originally named after him as "Hacıbey". After a period of Lithuanian control, it passed into the domain of the Ottoman Sultan in 1529 and remained in Ottoman hands until the Ottoman Empire's defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1792. The city of Odessa was founded by a decree of the Empress Catherine the Great in 1794. From 1819–1858 Odessa was a free port. During the Soviet period it was the most important port of trade in the Soviet Union and a Soviet naval base. On January 1, 2000 the Quarantine Pier of Odessa trade sea port was declared a free port and free economic zone for a term of 25 years.
  • In the 19th century it was the fourth largest city of Imperial Russia, after Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Warsaw. Its historical architecture has a style more Mediterranean than Russian, having been heavily influenced by French and Italian styles. Some buildings are built in a mixture of different styles, including Art Nouveau, Renaissance and Classicist.
  • Odessa is a warm water port, but militarily it is of limited value. Turkey's control of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus has enabled NATO to control water traffic between Odessa and the Mediterranean Sea. The city of Odessa hosts two important ports: Odessa itself and Yuzhne (also an internationally important oil terminal), situated in the city's suburbs. Another important port, Illichivs'k, is located in the same oblast, to the south-west of Odessa. Together they represent a major transport hub integrating with railways. Odessa's oil and chemical processing facilities are connected to Russia's and EU's respective networks by strategic pipelines. Kaynak



Fotograf Odessa'nın yazın görünümünü gösteriyor (bunu netten buldum). Bizim gezimiz Nisan ayının başında olduğu için yemyeşil bir Odessa ile karşılaşmadık.

Kiril Alfabesi:

  • Kendinizi elinizde harita adresleri çözümlemeye çalışırken bulacağınız için kiril alfabesinin latin karşılıklarını öğrenmeyi ihmal etmeyin.



Odessa'da Görülecek Yerler:
  • The most interesting thing to see in Odessa is the old town itself. The city was once the center for trade for the Russian Empire as well as an intellectual and artistic centre prior to the revolution and during the Soviet Union. Much of the grandeur of the city dates from the period before the Soviet takeover and subsequently Odessa shows its age.
    The economic hardships that befell the city falling the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992 have left vast portions of what was a magnificently wealthy old city in a state of total disrepair. The old city though is quite clean and feels very safe so it makes for a good two days worth of casual unguided wandering particularly with the wide tree lined avenues and large open parks.
    In the much smaller and better kept part of the old town there is a large and beautiful Opera house and some very nice parks. There is also one main street leading through the centre that is vibrant with people selling street goods to tourists.
    If you're looking for a nice route in a city center, try go from Grecheskaya square through Gavannaya st., then onto Gogolya street, in the end of which turn right and you will see Tyoschin bridge (Mother-in-law bridge). Walk through the bridge and take a stroll along the Primorskiy boulevard. In the end of the boulevard you'll see the city hall. Turn right and go up to the Opera House, from where you can get to Deribasovskaya street. It's especially beautiful in the evening.


Müzeler:
  • Museum of Western and Eastern Art, (Muzey Zapadnogo i Vostochnogo Iskusstva). Perhaps the most interesting. You can see paintings by Aivazovsky and Caravaggio (as of 9-1-09 no Caravaggio) and other famous artists.
  • Literature museum, at the very beginning of Lanzheronovskaya street. Features a 100 year walk through the history of Odessa in literature.
  • Maritime museum, just between the Opera House and Literature museum. Houses a history of Marine Fleet.
  • Archaeology museum, just around the corner from the literature museum.
  • Picture gallery, at the very beginning of the Sofievskaya Street. Once a palace of Prince Pototskiy, features a huge collection of Russian artist paintings.
  • Museum of the cinema at 33 French Boulevard. With more then 10,000 works on display, the museum is a testimony to the history and cinematic activity in Odessa. Here you can find historic materials, from the invention of cinema, to the postmodern, digital and avant-garde.
  • Odessa region museum, established since 1956, describes the history of region from the Dark Ages (from the 12th century) to present days. Has a few exhibitions and present halls. Is situated in the center of the city, in the former palace of Novikov. Kaynak


Yapılması Tavsiye Edilen:
  • Walk along the Deribasovskaya street, it has a very colourful pedestrian part, especially at summer or early autumn evening time.
  • Walk along the Primorskiy Boulevard (bul'var), is also very good promenade place.
    • In the middle of the Primorsky Boulevard, you will find a monument dedicated to Duke Rechelieu, one of the founders of Odessa.
    • From this point you can walk down the famous Potemkin Steps, to the Primorskaya street to the Marine Terminal, where a lot of buses and trolleybus #10 stops
    • Instead of walking up or down the Potemkin steps, it possible to use the funicular. (Which is back in operation as of October 2011).
    • If you turn 180 degrees from Potemkin Steps, you will see a Catherine Square, where you can take a short walk to. This square features a recently erected a monument to Catherine the Great, who is also one of the founders of Odessa.
    • Yekaterinenskaya Street: Walk on it a few blocks from its very beginning. A first couple of block is full of greenery, elegant houses where on a first floor there is either a restaurant or some store. In two blocks it intersects with Deribasovskaya street.
  • Opera HouseGo to the opera house for $20 or less. You can get very good tickets already for 100 UAH (€10), don't buy the cheaper ones because of restricted visibility. Odessa opera was called "the best opera in the world" by Ferdinand Fellner, and it's definitely a must see in Odessa.
  • Odessa PhilharmonicBunina streetGo for a concert to the beautiful historic building of National Philharmonic Theatre. The tickets from 80 UAH.  
  • Dolphinarium NemoMainly a paradise for children, but also for adults if you are a fan of these majestic marine mammals. The tickets for the show with dolphins cost 100 UAH (€10), and you can buy also the swimming with dolphins or dolphinotherapy (more costly). It is on the beach Lanzheron, take the tram No. 28, or trolleybus No. 2, and then walk to the right. Kaynak
Yemek:
  • There are lots of cafes and restaurants in Odessa, with more and more opening each year. The prices are quite affordable, if you come from the west. Expect to pay 70-100 UAH for a lunch in a cafe and around 200 UAH in a restaurant. Some restaurants can be of course very expensive, so take a look at the menu before ordering. In the warmer times of the year you can find lots of outdoor sitting areas in the cafes, with blankets usually available to keep you warm in the evening.
  • The 'fast food' on the street is tasty and if you don't speak Russian or read Cyrillic is much more accessible as you can just point at what it is you want. Menus are usually only in Russian, but you may try to ask for an English menu for you (ask in Russian for "menu po angliyski"). If they don't have one, either have an idea of what you want before you sit down or be prepared to randomly pick something from the menu. It's possible that waitresses can also speak basic English, try to ask for recommendations.
  • Food from street vendors, especially at the open air markets, should be approached with the same caution as you would display anywhere. It can be fantastic, or not. There are many supermarkets in Odessa that have high quality foods that you can buy as an alternative. There are several McDonald's restaurants in the city (str. Deribasovskaya 23, Privokzalnaya square 1a).
  • Generally, if you're looking for a place to eat, try to pick one in the city center that looks nice but not too expensive. There are lots of places for what could be called "middle class" with enjoyable atmosphere and good food, but random picking can of course lead to bad food and bad service.
  • Tavernetta,  New Italian restaurant with delicious home made pasta on Ekaterinska street. 
  • Pivnoy SadVery cosy restaurant, actually a brewery, set in City Garden. Plus excellent live music if you're lucky enough and you don't get the local radio. 
  • Olio PizzeriaNice pizzeria with pleasant design in the very heart of the city. Good prices, pizzas from 50 UAH. 
  • KompotDeribasovskaya 208am to 11pmGood food and very nice decoration. Sit upstairs if you can. They also have tables outside. 
  • Avoid eating Oriental or Indian in Odessa. They mostly don't have good cooks, the food you get is not authentic and priced heavily.
İçki:
  • The beer served in the south of Ukraine is outstanding and goes excellently with the hearty food. In the words of one not so impartial citizen of Central Europe who visited the country, 'Hey, this is as good as Czech beer!?!' A beer in a restaurant will usually cost around 2-3 USD for local beers and 4-6 USD for imported brands. There are several breweries in the area nearby Odessa, but they are usually not very popular in the restaurants. However, there is a small restaurant-brewery right in the "City Garden" near Deribasovskya, their beer is rather good and they have an English menu. Just look for a sign that says Hausbrauerei (German for Home Brewery) and tell them you just want to have a drink at the bar unless you want to have dinner there of course.
  • Long-lasting traditions of wine production in neighbouring Moldova and Crimea make Odessa an excellent place for wine lovers. Must taste: Negro de Purcari, Pino and famous sweet Kagor from Moldova, Massandra Portwine and Muscat from Crimea.
  • In the big supermarkets and in shops with alcoholic drink specialization you can find a full assortment of alcoholic drinks from beer to absinthe and from local brands to world famous brands.
  • In non-alcoholic drinks here is a large quantity of various brands (foreign: Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Fanta, Sprite, BonAqua etc.; national: Obolon', Bon-Boisson, Prem'era, Kuyal'nik, etc.; local: Kristall, Green Star, Dana, etc.).
  • The nightlife of Odessa is concentrated in the 'Arcadia' district, some 8 km away from the city center. In Odessa you have to pay to enter a club, the rates are around 70-80 UAH as of June 2011, but can be higher in particular clubs. A taxi to Arkadia should cost 30-40 UAH; beware of the taxi drivers who are waiting for you when you leave Arkadia at night, their tariffs are super-high and they can be rude and intimidating. Call a taxi or walk 500 meters further where you can negotiate a much lower price. To get from Arkadia at night to the central part of the city would be 30-40 UAH, to Tairovo or Cheremushki - 50 UAH.
  • Club IbizaArcadia,  Big club in the center of Arcadia. Cover charge 150 UAH, draft beer 25 UAH. 
  • Captain Morgan30, Zhukovskogo str,  One of the only 'clubs' in the city centre. Good for a drink, but go to Arcadia for the real parties. Cover charge 50 UAH, draft beer 25 UAH. 

Ayrıca:
  • Always carry your passport (or a good colour photocopy) with you. Immigration slips are no longer issued or used. The police in Odessa, as in all of Ukraine, are notoriously corrupt and constantly on the look out for tourists to harass with the aim of fining them for breaking some imagined rule or law. Use common sense and caution around rowdy groups and drunks in the city, unless you speak good Russian.
  • Be very careful in the Arkadia district at night, as it might be not safe in the darker areas. Try to be with someone who knows the clubs and the places and speaks Russian.


Odessa Foto-Günlük/Şehir ve İnsan















































































































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